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The most commonly used method of sewage treatment by mechanical filtration is granular media filtration and fibre filtration according to different filtration media. Granular media filtration mainly uses granular media such as sand and gravel as filtration media. It can filter solid suspended matter in water through the adsorption of granular media and the interception of pore between sand particles. Its advantages are easy to backwash, while its disadvantages are filtration. Slow speed, generally no more than 7m/h; less pollution interception, its core filter only has the surface of the filter layer; low filtering accuracy, only 20-40 um, is not suitable for rapid filtration of high turbidity sewage.
High efficiency asymmetric fiber filter system uses asymmetric fiber bundle material as filter material. Its filter material is asymmetric fiber. On the basis of fiber bundle filter material, a core is added to make it have the advantages of both fiber filter material and granular filter material. Because of the special structure of filter material, the porosity of the filter bed quickly forms gradient density, which makes the filter filter speed fast, filtrate interception large and easy to react. Flushing, through special design, can make the process of adding medicine, mixing, flocculation, dust-free and aseptic hand washing dryer filter in a reactor, so that the equipment can effectively remove suspended organic matter in aquaculture water, reduce COD, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and so on, especially suitable for the filtration of solid suspended matter in circulating water of temporary culture pond.
1. Asymmetric Fiber Filter Material Structure
The core technology of high efficiency automatic gradient density fiber filter is to use asymmetric fiber bundle material as filter material, one end of which is loose fiber bundle.
The other end of the fiber tow is fixed in the solid body with a larger proportion. When filtering, the solid core with a larger proportion plays a role in compacting the fiber tow. At the same time, because the size of the core is small, it has little effect on the uniformity of the voidage distribution in the filter section, thus improving the filter bed's ability to intercept pollutants. The filter bed has the advantages of high porosity, small specific surface area, high filtration speed and pollution interception. With the advantages of large volume and high filtration precision, when suspended material in water passes through the surface of fiber filter material, under the action of van der Waals gravitation and electricity, the adhesion force of suspended solid and fiber bundle is far greater than that of quartz sand, which is conducive to improving filtration speed and filtration accuracy.
When backwashing, comet tail fibers disperse and oscillate with backwashing water due to the difference of the specific gravity between core and filament, resulting in strong drag force.
The collision between the materials also aggravates the mechanical force on the fiber in water. The irregular shape of the filter material makes the filter material rotate under the action of backwashing water flow and airflow, and strengthens the mechanical shear force on the filter material during backwashing. The combined effect of these forces makes the solid particles attached to the fiber surface fall off easily, thus improving the cleanliness of the filter material. The asymmetric fiber filter material has the backwashing function of granular filter material at the same time.
2. Structure of Continuous Gradient Density Filter Bed with Upper Density and Lower Density
The filter bed composed of asymmetrical fiber bundle filter material produces resistance when water passes through the filter layer under the action of water flow compaction. From top to bottom, the head loss decreases gradually, the flow speed increases, the compaction degree of the filter material becomes higher and higher, and the porosity becomes smaller and smaller. Thus, along the direction of water flow, continuous gradient density filter layer distribution is formed automatically, forming an inverted pyramid structure. The structure is very conducive to the effective separation of solid suspended solids in water, that is, the particles desorbed on the top of the filter bed can easily be captured and intercepted in the lower narrow channel filter bed, realizing the unification of high filtration speed and high precision, improving the filters'contamination interception and prolonging the filtering cycle.